Drought Indexes: Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI)

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Anctil, F., W. Larouche, A. A. Viau, and L. E. Parent. 2002. Exploration of the standardized precipitation index (SPI) with regional analysis. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 82, no. 1: 527-538.

Guttman, Nathaniel B. 1999. Accepting the Standardized Precipitation Index:  A calculation algorithm. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 35, no. 2 (Apr): 311-22.

Guttman, Nathaniel B., and American Water Resources Association. 1998. Comparing the Palmer Drought Index and the standardized precipitation index. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 34, no. 1 (Feb): 113-121.

Hayes, M. 2002. Drought indexes // Drought indices. 9p. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska.

Hayes, Michael J., M. D. Svoboda,  D. A. Wilhite, and O. V. Vanyarkho. 1999. Monitoring the 1996 drought using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 80, no. 3: 429-438.

Hayes, Michael J., Mark D. Svoboda, William J. Waltman, Steve Goddard, and Ken G. Hubbard. 2002. Monitoring droughts with improved drought index resolution. Session 8.2 IN 13th Conference on Applied Meteorology, 13-16 May 2002.

Kim, S. M., and S. W. Park. 2001. Comparison of drought indices on major weather stations in Korea. [Proceedings of the] ASAE Conference, 9-12 July 2000 in Milwaukee, WI. ASAE Paper no.2017: 1-12.

Lloyd-Hughes, Benjamin, and M. A. Saunders. 2002. European drought climatology and prediction using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI). 8.11 IN 13th Conference on Applied Meteorology, 13-16 May 2002.

Quiring, Steven M., and Timothy N. Papakryiakou. 2002. A Comparative performance analysis of agricultural drought indices for the Canadian Prairies. Presentation at Session 318 of: Proceedings of the 2002 Annual meeting of the Canadian Association of Geographers, May 29 – June 1, 2002 // Congrčs annuel de l'ACG.
Geoscience Canada: Proceedings of the Geological Association of Canada. 0072-1034.

United States Department of Agriculture. 2001. Drought Monitor: Current Conditions -- USDA data summaries [Web site]. Ref: www.enso.unl.edu/monitor/current.html

Viau, A. A., J. V. Vogt, and I. Beaudin. 2000. Comparison of a satellite-based and a precipitation-based drought iIndex. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing / Journal Canadien de Teledetection [Ottawa, ON: Canadian Aeronautics and Space Institute] 26, no. 6 (Dec): 580-585.

Waltman, William J., M. D. Svoboda, M. J. Hayes, J. S. Peake, T. Tadesse, S. Goddard, and S. E. Reichenbach. 2002. A Geospatial decision support system for drought and crop risk analysis in Nebraska. Session JP1.19 IN 13th Conference on Applied Meteorology, 13-16 May 2002.

Wilhite, Donald, National Drought Mitigation Center, International Drought Information Center, University of Nebraska-Lincoln. 1995. Discussion of selected drought indices; Prepared for Alberta Agriculture, Edmonton, Alberta. [Manuscript] 16p. Lincoln, NB: National Drought Mitigation Center, University of Nebraska.

Wu, Hong, M. J. Hayes, A. Weiss, and Qi Hu. 2001. An Evaluation of the Standardized Precipitation Index, the China-Z Index and the statistical Z-Score. International Journal of Climatology 21, no. 6 (May): 745-58.

Yamoah, CF, MD Clegg, and CA Francis. 1998. Rotation effect on sorghum response to nitrogen fertilizer under
different rainfall and temperature environments. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 68, no. 3: 233-43.

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This information published to the web on November 15, 2002.
Last Reviewed/Revised on April 19, 2018.