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Wheat Nutrition and Fertilizer Requirements: Potassium

 
 
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 Effect of potassium on wheat plant growth | Wheat plant potassium content and requirement | Potassium deficiency symptoms | Potassium supply | Potassium fertilizer recommendations | Potassium fertilizer placement and time of application

Adapted from the Canada Grains Council's Complete Guide to Wheat Management

Effect of Potassium on Wheat Plant Growth

Wheat requires potassium for optimal growth and development. Adequate potassium results in superior quality of the whole plant due to improved efficiency of photosynthesis, increased resistance to some diseases, and greater water use efficiency. It helps maintain a normal balance between carbohydrates and proteins. Sufficient potassium results in stronger wheat straw and assists in grain filling.

Wheat Plant Potassium Content and Requirement

Wheat requires significant amounts of potassium for optimum growth (Table 1). Of the total potassium required by a 2690 kg/ha (40 bu/ac) wheat crop, 18 kg/ha (16 lb/ac) of potassium is contained in the seed and 54 kg/ha (48 lb/ac) fertilizer potassium in the straw. Unlike phosphorus and nitrogen, potassium is not incorporated into organic compounds in the plant tissue but remains in ionic forms within cells and tissue. After wheat straw is incorporated into the soil, a large quantity of potassium is (75%) released back into the soil for subsequent crop use.

Table 1. Potassium requirements of wheat.

Potassium (K)
Yield
Crop Part
Kg/ha
(lb/ac)
Wheat
Seed
18
16
2690 Kg/ha
Straw
54
48
(40 Bu/ac)
Total
72
64
Adapted from Simplot, 1986

Potassium Deficiency Symptoms

In wheat, potassium deficiency may result in shorter internodes, weaker straw, increased lodging and slower growth. A bronzing or yellowing of the leaf tip followed by marginal yellowing and dying of the tip may be noted. Lower leaves are affected first because potassium in the plant is translocated to the new upper leaves. Deficiency symptoms can be easily confused with symptoms of nitrogen or phosphorus deficiency. Standard tissue tests can be useful to identify and confirm potassium deficiencies.

Potassium Supply

The majority of soils in Alberta contain sufficient potassium to satisfy crop growth. Total amount often exceeds 40,000 kg/ha (36,000 lb/ac) in the top 15 cm (6 in). However, only 1 to 2% of the total K is in a form that is potentially available to plants.

Geologic material on which soils developed generally contained considerable potassium bearing minerals. Potassium becomes available to crops through weathering of these minerals. Available and exchangeable levels of potassium generally range between 300 and 1,000 kg/ha (270-900 lb/ac). However, some soils have as little as 100 kg/ha (90 lb/ac) of available potassium, and a minimum of 200 kg/ha (180 lb/ac) of available potassium is required for optimum growth of wheat. Soils that have the greatest potential for potassium deficiencies are the coarse (sandy) and medium (loam) textured soils in the black, gray-black and gray soil zones, as well as the organic soils. Irrigated coarse textured soils that are intensively cropped and include potatoes, sugar beets or alfalfa in the rotation, would probably require potassium. A soil test is recommended to determine whether a potassium application is warranted in any specific situation.

Potassium Fertilizer Recommendations

General potassium fertilizer recommendations are provided for wheat in Table 2.

Table 2. Potassium fertilizer recommendations for wheat
Soil test K
(lb/ac)
Brown
Dark
Brown
Thin
Black
Black
Gray
Wooded
Irrigated
D
M
W
D
M
W
D
M
W
D
M
W
D
M
W
K20
lb/ac
0
100
105
110
105
110
115
105
110
115
110
115
120
110
115
120
120
25
90
95
100
95
100
115
95
100
105
100
105
110
100
105
110
110
50
80
85
90
85
90
105
85
90
95
90
95
100
90
95
100
100
75
70
70
80
75
75
95
75
75
85
80
80
90
80
80
90
90
100
60
60
70
65
65
85
65
65
75
70
70
80
70
70
80
80
125
50
50
55
55
55
75
55
55
60
60
60
65
60
60
65
70
150
35
40
45
40
45
50
40
45
50
45
50
55
45
50
55
55
175
25
30
35
30
35
40
30
35
40
35
40
45
35
40
45
45
200
15
20
25
20
25
30
20
25
30
25
30
35
25
30
35
35
225
15
15
15
15
15
20
15
15
20
15
20
25
15
20
25
25
250
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
>250
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
*D=Dry, M=Moist, W=Wet
Seedbed soil moisture conditions at seeding D=25%; M=50%; W=75% of field capacity.


Potassium Fertilizer Placement and Time of Application

In Alberta, potassium fertilizers have been used much less than nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers and therefore much less research work has been done concerning their placement. However, placement of potassium fertilizer with the seed has appeared to be the most effective method of application provided the rate of application is not greater than the seed can tolerate. With average soil moisture conditions and for medium soil textures, the total amount of seed-placed fertilizer materials should not exceed 196 kg/ha (175 lb/ac) and the amount of nitrogen 45 kg/ha plus potassium should not exceed 45 kg/ha (40 lb/ac). These recommendations are based on the use of a hoe or similar drill which places the seed and fertilizer in a relatively narrow band. If the opener spreads the seed over a wider band, higher rates of fertilizer can be safely placed with the seed.

Side banding is an efficient means of applying potassium. In this placement the fertilizer is in a band to the side and below the seed. Banding prior to seeding has not received a great deal of research attention, however, side banding should give similar results. Broadcasting potassium prior to seeding is less efficient than applying potassium in a band with or near the seed.

Potassium fertilizers are not subject to leaching or volatilization; therefore, can be applied in the fall or spring. However, seed-placed or side banded potassium is normally best, versus broadcast or a random band application.
 
 
 
 

Other Documents in the Series

 
  Wheat Nutrition and Fertilizer Requirements
Wheat Nutrition and Fertilizer Requirements: Nitrogen
Wheat Nutrition and Fertilizer Requirements: Potassium - Current Document
Wheat Nutrition and Fertilizer Requirements: Sulphur
Wheat Nutrition and Fertilizer Requirements: Micronutrients
 
 
 
 
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For more information about the content of this document, contact Doon Pauly.
This document is maintained by Mary Ann Nelson.
This information published to the web on June 21, 2001.
Last Reviewed/Revised on June 28, 2012.