Saskatoon Berry Bloom Stages, Pests and Control Options - Frequently Asked Questions

 
 
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 Dormant Bud | Silver Tip Bud | Green Tip Bud | Full Green | Tight Cluster | White Tip | Balloon or Tube | Early Flowering | Full Flower | Petal Fall | Early Green Fruit | Late Green Fruit | Red Fruit | Mature Fruit | Post-Harvest | Dormant and/or Summer

Every year, Saskatoon berry producers are faced with the challenge of preventing and managing pests in their orchards. These pests (whether disease or insect pest) occur naturally in wild stands and, at this point, are essentially present in most orchards on the Prairies. Many of these pests can be tough to recognize or locate in an orchard, as they lurk in hard to reach areas. Management can be challenging, as the most sensitive or most effectively controlled stages are only active for short times. Most controls are protective or preventative, rather than curative.

Most chemical controls are recommended to be applied at specific botanical stages of the Saskatoon berry, which coincide with specific points within pest life cycles or are timed to provide a window of protection for sensitive plant parts. These stages are somewhat generic, but can be used as a guide for effective chemical control application.

The following is a general outline of the different stages of leaf and flower bud development, from bud break through to fruiting, with associated pests and registered chemicals. It should be noted that the rate of development through these stages can vary, depending on seasonal weather conditions and regional climatic influences, and as such, pictures and information should only be used as a general guide. While specific products may be applied at a number of different stages, pesticide labels should be carefully consulted for appropriate application rates and the number of applications that are allowed per season. Application costs should also be considered as well as whether the control product is actually required.

Dormant Bud Stage


Dormant bud stage
Photo by Robert Spencer

Pests that may be controlled at this stage
Chemicals registered for use at this stage
Other comments
Saskatoon Bud Moth (egg stage), leaf rollers
Bartlett Superior 70 Oil (Dormant Oil)
  • General Cleanup spray
Apply before or after bud break (this stage or silver tip stage)
  • Max 1x application/year
Entomosporium Leaf & Berry Spot
Kumulus DF (80% sulphur)

Microthiol Disperss (80% sulphur)
Apply at bud break & at 10-14 day intervals
  • May be applied at bud break and at 10-14 day intervals (1 day PHI)
  • Do not apply within 30 days of mineral oil application
  • Max 8x applications/season
Bacterial Blight (Pseudomonas syringae) - suppression
Serenade MAX / ASO / OPTI (Biofungicide - Bacillus subtilis)
Apply before fall rains & again during dormancy
.
NOTE – Listed pesticides are registered for application at the various times indicated, however, producers should consider all relevant factors when making application decisions. Not all applications will be required each season.

Silver Tip Bud Stage

Silver tip bud stage
Photo by Robert Spencer

Pests that may be controlled at this stage
Chemicals registered for use at this stage
Other comments
Saskatoon Bud Moth (egg stage), leaf rollers
Bartlett Superior 70 Oil (Dormant Oil)
Spray before bud break (apply at dormant or silver tip stage)
  • Check bud axils for eggs
  • Max 1x application/year
Entomosporium Leaf & Berry Spot
Kumulus DF (80% sulphur)

Microthiol Disperss (80% sulphur)
May be necessary if moderate to severe infection in previous year
  • May be applied at bud break and at 10-14 day intervals (1 day PHI)
  • Do not apply within 30 days of mineral oil application
  • Max 8x applications/year
.
NOTE – Listed pesticides are registered for application at the various times indicated, however, producers should consider all relevant factors when making application decisions. Not all applications will be required each season.

Green Tip Bud Stage

Green tip bud stage
Photos by Robert Spencer

Pests that may be controlled at this stage
Chemicals registered for use at this stage
Other comments
Saskatoon Bud Moth (SBM laying eggs; hatching larvae)
Decis 5.0EC (deltamethrin 50g/L); Poleci 2.5EC (deltamethrin 25g/L)
1st Decis application
  • May be effective as late as tight cluster stage
  • 21 day PHI
Tarnished Plant Bug (wintering TPB adults feeding on fruit buds)
Other Plant Bugs
Saskatoon Bud Moth
Matador 120EC / Warrior (lambda-cyhalothrin 120g/L / 122g/L)
1st of 2 possible applications
  • Max 2 applications
  • 21 day PHI
  • 10-15 days between applications
Entomosporium Leaf & Berry Spot
Kumulus DF (80% sulphur)

Microthiol Disperss (80% sulphur)
Apply at bud break & at 10-14 day intervals
  • May be applied at bud break and at 10-14 day intervals (1 day PHI)
  • Do not apply within 30 days of mineral oil application
  • Max 8x applications/season
.
NOTE – Listed pesticides are registered for application at the various times indicated, however, producers should consider all relevant factors when making application decisions. Not all applications will be required each season.

Full Green Stage

Full green bud stage
Photos by Robert Spencer

Pests that may be controlled at this stage
Chemicals registered for use at this stage
Other comments
Saskatoon Bud Moth
Decis 5.0EC (deltamethrin 50g/L); Poleci 2.5EC (deltamethrin 25g/L)
  • Delayed timing for SBM control (see Green Tip Stage)
Green tip stage is the preferred stage for application
  • 21 day PHI
Entomosporium Leaf & Berry Spot
Kumulus DF (80% sulphur)

Microthiol Disperss (80% sulphur)
May be necessary if moderate to severe infection in previous year
  • May be applied at bud break and at 10-14 day intervals (1 day PHI)
  • Do not apply within 30 days of mineral oil application
  • Max 8x applications/year
.
NOTE – Listed pesticides are registered for application at the various times indicated, however, producers should consider all relevant factors when making application decisions. Not all applications will be required each season.

Tight Cluster Stage

Tight cluster stage
Photo by Robert Spencer

Pests that may be controlled at this stage
Chemicals registered for use at this stage
Other comments
Saskatoon Bud Moth
Decis 5.0EC (deltamethrin 50g/L); Poleci 2.5EC (deltamethrin 25g/L)
  • Delayed timing for SBM control (see Green Tip Stage)
Green tip stage is the preferred stage for application
  • 21 day PHI
Entomosporium Leaf & Berry Spot
Kumulus DF (80% sulphur)

Microthiol Disperss (80% sulphur)
May be necessary if moderate to severe infection in previous year
  • May be applied at bud break and at 10-14 day intervals (1 day PHI)
  • Do not apply within 30 days of mineral oil application
  • Max 8x applications/year
..
NOTE – Listed pesticides are registered for application at the various times indicated, however, producers should consider all relevant factors when making application decisions. Not all applications will be required each season.

White Tip Stage

Early white tip stage
White tip stage
White tip stage
Late white tip stage
Photos by Robert Spencer
.
Pests that may be controlled at this stage
Chemicals registered for use at this stage
Other comments
Entomosporium Leaf & Berry Spot
Kumulus DF (80% sulphur)

Microthiol Disperss (80% sulphur)
May be necessary if moderate to severe infection in previous year
  • May be applied at bud break and at 10-14 day intervals (1 day PHI)
  • Do not apply within 30 days of mineral oil application
  • Max 8x applications/year
Entomosporium Leaf & Berry Spot – suppression
Switch 62.5WG (cyprodinil 37.5% / fludioxinil 25.0%)
Cyproflu (cyprodinil 37.5% / fludioxinil 25.0%)
Apply during early bloom – can be applied when petals start to show or earlier (if disease is present)
  • Max 3x applications/year
Entomosporium Leaf & Berry Spot

Saskatoon Berry / Juniper Rust

Coincidental control of Brown rot
Fitness / Jade / Prozol / Topas / Propi Speed / Propi Express / Mission 418 EC / Bumper 432EC (propiconizole 250, 418 or 432g/L)
Persistent cool, wet weather
  • 1st of max 3 applications
  • Apply to point of runoff
  • 38 day PHI
Funginex DC (triforine 190g/L)
Spray to point of drip
  • 60 day PHI
Pristine WG (boscalid 25.2% / pyraclostrobin 12.8%)
Apply prior to disease development
  • 7-14 day interval
  • Max 4x applications/year (2 recommended)
  • 29 day REI / 0 day PHI
Oblique-banded leafroller; spanworm; winter moth
Success 480SC / Entrust 80W Naturalyte (spinosad 480g/L / 80%); Entrust Insecticide (spinosad 240g/L)
Apply at time of egg hatch or to small larvae
  • 7-10 day intervals
  • Max 3x applications/year
  • 3 day PHI
  • Apply higher rate for larger larvae
  • Larvae may become more exposed as buds flush
..
NOTE – Listed pesticides are registered for application at the various times indicated, however, producers should consider all relevant factors when making application decisions. Not all applications will be required each season.

Balloon or Tube Stage

Balloon or Tube stage
Photos by Robert Spencer

Pests that may be controlled at this stage
Chemicals registered for use at this stage
Other comments
Saskatoon Bud Moth
Tarnished Plant Bug
Other Plant Bugs
Saskatoon Sawfly
Hawthorn Weevil
Apple Curculio
Decis 5.0EC (deltamethrin 50g/L); Poleci 2.5EC (deltamethrin 25g/L)
  • Toxic to most pollinators
2nd of 3 allowed applications
  • Apply to both sides of orchard rows
  • Apply prior to 25% bloom
  • 21 day PHI
Fireblight – suppression
Bloomtime Biological FD Biopesticide (Pantoea agglomerans)

Kasumin 2L (Kasugamycin 2.00%)
Make 1st of maximum 2 applications at 15-20% bloom
  • 0 day PHI
Begin applications at bloom and continue every 3-7 days
Entomosporium Leaf & Berry Spot
Kumulus DF (80% sulphur)

Microthiol Disperss (80% sulphur)
May be necessary if moderate to severe infection in previous year
  • May be applied at bud break and at 10-14 day intervals (1 day PHI)
  • Do not apply within 30 days of mineral oil application
  • Max 8x applications/year
Entomosporium Leaf & Berry Spot – suppression
Switch 62.5WG (cyprodinil 37.5% / fludioxinil 25.0%)
Cyproflu (cyprodinil 37.5% / fludioxinil 25.0%)
Apply during early bloom – repeat after 7-10 days
  • Max 3x applications
  • 10 day REI
Entomosporium Leaf & Berry Spot

Saskatoon Berry / Juniper Rust
Fitness / Jade / Prozol / Topas / Propi Speed / Propi Express / Mission 418 EC / Bumper 432EC (propiconizole 250, 418 or 432g/L)
May be applied as a late 1st application if weather conditions are favourable for disease development
Pristine WG (boscalid 25.2% / pyraclostrobin 12.8%)
Apply prior to disease development
  • 7-14 day intervals
  • Max 4x applications/year (2 recommended)
  • 29 day REI / 0 day PHI
Powdery Mildew
Nova 40W (myclobutanil 40%)
Spray until drip
  • 1st of max 3 applications/year
  • 14 day PHI
Powdery Mildew

Botrytis Gray Mold (Botrytis cinerea)
Luna Privilege (fluopyram 500g/L) / Luna Tranquility (fluopyram 125g/L / pyrimethanil 375g/L)
Begin applications preventatively
  • 7-14d intervals
  • 1 day PHI
Phytopthora Root Rot (suppression)
Phostrol (mono & dibasic sodium, potassium & ammonium phosphites 53.6%)
Begin applications as flower petals begin to emerge
  • 14 day intervals
.
NOTE – Listed pesticides are registered for application at the various times indicated, however, producers should consider all relevant factors when making application decisions. Not all applications will be required each season.

Early Flowering Stage

Early flowering stage
Photo by Robert Spencer

Pests that may be controlled at this stage
Chemicals registered for use at this stage
Other comments
Saskatoon Bud Moth
Tarnished Plant Bug
Other Plant Bugs
Saskatoon Sawfly
Hawthorn Weevil
Apple Curculio
Decis 5.0EC (deltamethrin 50g/L); Poleci 2.5EC (deltamethrin 25g/L)
  • Toxic to most pollinators
  • 2nd of max 3 allowed applications
    • Apply prior to 25% bloom
    • Apply to both sides of orchard rows
    • 21 day PHI
    Fireblight – suppression
    Bloomtime Biological FD Biopesticide (Pantoea agglomerans)

    Kasumin 2L (Kasugamycin 2.00%)
    Make 1st of maximum 2 applications at 15-20% bloom
    • Begin applications at bloom and continue every 3-7 days
    .
    NOTE – Listed pesticides are registered for application at the various times indicated, however, producers should consider all relevant factors when making application decisions. Not all applications will be required each season.

    Full Flower Stage

    Full flower stage
    Photo by Robert Spencer

    Pests that may be controlled at this stage
    Chemicals registered for use at this stage
    Other comments
    Insect pollination is considered beneficial for fruit set – pesticide application during flowering can significantly injure pollinators
    No pesticides or fungicides should be applied during full bloom
    • Insecticides are toxic to pollinators
    • Some fungicides (e.g. sulphur) can have a repellent effect

    Petal Fall Stage

    Petal fall stage
    Photo by Robert Spencer

    Pests that may be controlled at this stage
    Chemicals registered for use at this stage
    Other comments
    Fireblight (suppression)
    Bloomtime Biological FD Biopesticide (Pantoea agglomerans)
    Kasumin 2L (Kasugamycin 2.00%)
    Make 2nd of max 2 applications at full bloom to petal fall
    • 0 day PHI
    Begin applications at bloom and continue every 3-7 days
    Entomosporium Leaf & Berry Spot – suppression
    Switch 62.5WG (cyprodinil 37.5% / fludioxinil 25.0%)
    Cyproflu (cyprodinil 37.5% / fludioxinil 25.0%)
    • Apply 7-10 day intervals
    • Max 3x applications
    • 10 day REI
    Entomosporium Leaf & Berry Spot
    Kumulus DF (80% sulphur)

    Microthiol Disperss (80% sulphur)
    May be necessary if moderate to severe infection in previous year
    • May be applied at bud break and at 10-14 day intervals (1 day PHI)
    • Do not apply within 30 days of mineral oil application
    • Max 8x applications/year
    Entomosporium Leaf & Berry Spot


    Saskatoon Berry / Juniper Rust


    Some coincidental control of Brown rot may be expected
    Fitness / Jade / Prozol / Topas / Propi Speed / Propi Express / Mission 418 EC / Bumper 432EC (propiconizole 250, 418 or 432g/L)

    (propiconizole 250, 250 or 418g/L)

    Persistent cool, wet weather
    • 2nd of max 3 applications
    • Apply to point of runoff
    • 38 day PHI
    Pristine WG (boscalid 25.2% / pyraclostrobin 12.8%)
    Apply prior to disease development
    • 7-14 day intervals
    • Max 4x applications/year (2 recommended)
    • 29 day REI / 0 day PHI
    Botrytis grey mould (Botrytis cinerea)
    Serenade MAX / ASO / OPTI
    (Biofungicide - Bacillus subtilis)
    Luna Privilege (fluopyram 500g/L) / Luna Tranquility
    (fluopyram 125g/L / pyrimethanil 375g/L)
    Begin applications prior to first sign of disease
    • 7-10 day intervals

    .
    NOTE – Listed pesticides are registered for application at the various times indicated, however, producers should consider all relevant factors when making application decisions. Not all applications will be required each season.

    Early Green Fruit Stage

    Early green fruit stage
    Photos by Robert Spencer

    Pests that may be controlled at this stage
    Chemicals registered for use at this stage
    Other comments
    Hawthorn Weevil
    Apple Curculio
    · adult weevils and ovipositing curculio
    Decis 5.0EC (deltamethrin 50g/L); Poleci 2.5EC (deltamethrin 25g/L)
    3rd of max 3 allowed applications
    • Apply 5-10 days after petal fall
    • Apply to both sides of orchard rows
    • 21 day PHI
    Saskatoon Bud Moth
    Matador 120EC / Warrior (lambda-cyhalothrin 120g/l / 122g/L)
    2nd possible application (after petal fall)
    • Max 2 applications
    • 21 day PHI
    • 10-15 days between applications
    Powdery Mildew
    Nova 40W (myclobutanil 40%)
    Spray until drip
    • 2nd of max 3 applications/year
    • 14 day PHI
    Powdery Mildew
    Luna Privilege (fluopyram 500g/L) / Luna Tranquility
    (fluopyram 125g/L / pyrimethanil 375g/L)
    Begin applications preventatively
    • 7-14d intervals
    • 1 day PHI
    Entomosporium Leaf & Berry Spot
    Kumulus DF (80% sulphur)

    Microthiol Disperss (80% sulphur)
    May be necessary if moderate to severe infection in previous year
    • May be applied at bud break and at 10-14 day intervals (1 day PHI)
    • Do not apply within 30 days of mineral oil application
    • Max 8x applications/year
    Entomosporium Leaf & Berry Spot

    Saskatoon Berry / Juniper Rust

    Some coincidental control of Brown rot may be expected
    Fitness / Jade / Prozol / Topas / Propi Speed / Propi Express / Mission 418 EC / Bumper 432EC (propiconizole 250, 418 or 432g/L)
    Persistent cool, wet weather
    • 3rd of max 3 applications
    • Apply to point of runoff
    • 38 day PHI
    Pristine WG (boscalid 25.2% / pyraclostrobin 12.8%)
    Apply prior to disease development
    • 7-14 day intervals
    • Max 4x applications/year (2 recommended)
    • 29 day REI / 0 day PHI
    Botrytis grey mould (Botrytis cinerea)
    Serenade MAX / ASO / OPTI
    (Biofungicide - Bacillus subtilis)
    Luna Privilege (fluopyram 500g/L) / Luna Tranquility
    (fluopyram 125g/L / pyrimethanil 375g/L)
    Begin applications prior to first sign of disease
    • 7-10 day intervals
    .
    NOTE – Listed pesticides are registered for application at the various times indicated, however, producers should consider all relevant factors when making application decisions. Not all applications will be required each season.

    Late Green Fruit Stage

    Late green fruit stage
    Photo by Robert Spencer

    Pests that may be controlled at this stage
    Chemicals registered for use at this stage
    Other comments
    Powdery Mildew
    Nova 40W (myclobutanil 40%)
    Spray until drip
    • 3rd of max 3 applications/year
    • 14 day PHI
    Entomosporium Leaf & Berry Spot
    Kumulus DF (80% sulphur)

    Microthiol Disperss (80% sulphur)
    May be necessary if moderate to severe infection in previous year
    • May be applied at bud break and at 10-14 day intervals (1 day PHI)
    • Do not apply within 30 days of mineral oil application
    • Max 8x applications/year
    Entomosporium Leaf & Berry Spot
    Saskatoon Berry/Juniper Rust
    Coincidental control of Brown rot may be expected
    Pristine WG (boscalid 25.2% / pyraclostrobin 12.8%)
    • May be applied at this stage rather than early green fruit stage – disease pressure related
    • 29 day REI / 0 day PHI
    Botrytis grey mould (Botrytis cinerea)
    Serenade MAX / ASO / OPTI
    (Biofungicide - Bacillus subtilis)
    Luna Privilege (fluopyram 500g/L) / Luna Tranquility
    (fluopyram 125g/L / pyrimethanil 375g/L)
    Begin applications prior to first sign of disease
    • 7-10 day intervals
    .
    NOTE – Listed pesticides are registered for application at the various times indicated, however, producers should consider all relevant factors when making application decisions. Not all applications will be required each season.

    Red Fruit Stage

    Red fruit stage
    Photo by Robert Spencer

    Pests that may be controlled at this stage
    Chemicals registered for use at this stage
    Other comments
    Entomosporium Leaf & Berry Spot
    Kumulus DF (80% sulphur)

    Microthiol Disperss (80% sulphur)
    May be necessary if moderate to severe infection in previous year
    • May be applied at bud break and at 10-14 day intervals (1 day PHI)
    • Not recommended at late stages due to strong sulphur odours
    • Do not apply within 30 days of mineral oil application
    • Max 8x applications/year
    Botrytis grey mould (Botrytis cinerea)
    Serenade MAX / ASO / OPTI
    (Biofungicide - Bacillus subtilis)
    Luna Privilege (fluopyram 500g/L) / Luna Tranquility
    (fluopyram 125g/L / pyrimethanil 375g/L)
    Begin applications prior to first sign of disease
    • 7-10 day intervals
    .
    NOTE – Listed pesticides are registered for application at the various times indicated, however, producers should consider all relevant factors when making application decisions. Not all applications will be required each season.

    Mature Fruit Stage

    Occurs in approximately mid-July, depending on season and location.

    Mature fruit stage
    Photo by Robert Spencer

    Pests that may be controlled at this stage
    Chemicals registered for use at this stage
    Other comments
    Entomosporium Leaf & Berry Spot
    Kumulus DF (80% sulphur)

    Microthiol Disperss (80% sulphur)
    May be necessary if moderate to severe infection in previous year
    • May be applied at bud break and at 10-14 day intervals (1 day PHI)
    • Not recommended at late stages due to strong sulphur odours
    • Do not apply within 30 days of mineral oil application
    • Max 8x applications/year
    Woolly Elm Aphid – suppression

    Woolly Apple Aphid - suppression
    Admire 240F (imidacloprid 240g/L) (systemic insecticide)

    Alias 240SC (imidacloprid 240g/L)
    (systemic insecticide)
    Apply as a soil drench when 75-100% of aphid migration is completed (typically early to mid-July)
    • 14 day PHI
    Botrytis grey mould (Botrytis cinerea)
    Serenade MAX / ASO/ OPTI (Biofungicide - Bacillus subtilis)
    Luna Privilege (fluopyram 500g/L) / Luna Tranquility
    (fluopyram 125g/L / pyrimethanil 375g/L)
    Inject with a probe 15cm (6 inch) from plant at 4 locations around each plant
    • Apply 1 x per season (mid-July to early August)
    • 11 month PHI

    Post-Harvest Stage

    Occurs in late-July to mid-August, depending on season and location

    Pests that may be controlled at this stage
    Chemicals registered for use at this stage
    Other comments
    Woolly Elm Aphid
    Woolly Apple Aphid
    Orthene 75% SP (acephate)
    (systemic insecticide)
    Inject with a probe 15cm (6 inch) from plant at 4 locations around each plant
    • Apply 1x per season (mid-July to early August)
    • 11 month PHI
    .

    Dormant & or Summer Applications - non-specific or variable stage


    Pests that may be controlled
    Chemicals registered
    Other comments
    Aphids, mites, mealybugs, scales
    Vegol Crop Oil (canola oil 96%)
    Dormant and growing season spray
    • Begin applications when pests appear – repeat at 7-14 day intervals as needed
    Aphids
    Sivanto Prime (flupyradifurone 200g/L)
    Apply as directed foliar spray ensuring thorough coverage
    • 3 day PHI
    • Min 7 day intervals
    • Max 3-4 apps



    NOTE – Listed pesticides are registered for application at the various times indicated, however, producers should consider all relevant factors when making application decisions. Not all applications will be required each season.
     
     
     
     
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    This information published to the web on May 12, 2016.
    Last Reviewed/Revised on July 18, 2017.