Irrigation Scheduling for Barley in Southern Alberta

 
 
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 Irrigation management | Strategies | Barley water needs | Irrigation scheduling strategy | Fusarium Head Blight | Final irrigation | Soil texture | Conclusion

Irrigation management is about controlling the rate, amount, and timing of applied irrigation water in a planned and efficient manner. With good irrigation management, a barley crop can have high yield and quality potential.

Irrigation Management

The goal of irrigation management is to use available irrigation water effectively in managing and controlling the soil moisture environment of crops to do three things: promote the desired crop response, minimize soil degradation, and protect water quality.

Proper irrigation management requires a good understanding of a number of factors:

  • soil fertility (crop nutritional requirements)
  • soil-water-plant relationships
  • crop type
  • crop sensitivity to water stress
  • crop growth stages
  • availability of a water supply
  • climatic factors that affect crop water use such as rainfall, temperature, humidity, and net radiation
  • irrigation system capabilities and limitations
Equipped with such knowledge, an irrigator can develop a workable and efficient irrigation scheduling program.

Strategies

A workable and efficient irrigation management strategy should be crop-specific. Crop-specific irrigation management strategies mean available water is used efficiently to meet a specific crop’s water requirements for maximum water productivity.

Generally, the goal is to ensure that water is available at germination and in early development by applying light, frequent irrigations (if there is no rainfall). This method promotes vigorous growth and replenishes and increases available soil water content in the entire root zone during the pre-flowering growth stages. Such a strategy will allow modern sprinkler irrigation systems to keep up to crop demand during the peak water use period, which typically occurs during the flowering and fruit-formation growth stages.

Crop-specific irrigation management strategies are usually applied to adjust for the following differences among crops:
  • effective root zones
  • sensitivity to water stress
  • types (cool versus warm-season)
  • vulnerability to diseases at various crop growth stages
  • response to soil fertility levels
  • plant population/densities
  • physiologic maturity (timing of last irrigation)
  • potential income
Barley Water Needs

Barley uses water for growth and cooling purposes. The water requirement or evapotranspiration (ET) for barley depends on variety, growth stage, canopy density, climatic conditions, and irrigation and crop management.

Barley grown under optimal conditions (well-fertilized, well-irrigated, seeded in standing stubble, pest-free, and uniform and optimum canopy) requires 380 to 430 mm of water per growing season in southern Alberta. When seeded into soil with available water between 60 and 100 per cent, barley will germinate, grow rapidly, and reach a peak water use of near 7 mm per day during the flowering and fruit-formation growth stages (Figure 1).
Typically, the roots of barley grow to an effective water extraction depth of 100 cm in a well-developed soil. Root distribution is concentrated near the surface; hence, barley obtains more than 70 per cent of its seasonal water from the upper 50 cm of the active root zone. The active root zone changes from a few millimetres at emergence to a maximum depth of 100 cm at the flowering growth stage.



Figure 1. Daily water use during different growth stages of irrigated barley in southern Alberta. Shaded area indicates variation in barley water use depending on plant type, cultivar, and climatic conditions.

Irrigation Scheduling Strategy

Effective barley irrigation scheduling uses soil water levels in the root zone as a measure for starting and stopping irrigations. Adequate soil water is critical for barley during the emergence, vegetative (pre-flowering), flowering, and fruit-formation growth stages. Ideally, soil water content in the 0 to 50-cm depth should be greater than 60 per cent of available at planting.

Barley needs to have sufficient water for germination and root development during the early stages of growth. If seeded in a dry seedbed (less than 60 per cent of available in the 0 to 50-cm depth) in late April before irrigation water is available, the first and subsequent irrigations(15 mm per irrigation event) should be applied as soon as irrigation water is available in early May. These irrigations should be light and frequent to maintain a moist soil surface, prevent crusting, and encourage rapid emergence and early root development. Ideally, irrigation to increase seedbed soil water should be applied before seeding.

If well-fertilized, a pest-free barley stand will reach maximum grain yield and quality if ample water is available in the root zone during the tillering and flowering growth stages. To ensure that ample water is available to barley during the vegetative growth stages(i.e. tillering to late boot), available soil moisture should not be depleted to less than 60 per cent in the upper 50 cm of the 100-cm root zone.

Any irrigation applied during the vegetative growth stages should start when the available soil water is near 65 per cent of available to prevent the available soil water from being depleted to less than 60 per cent.

Maintaining available soil water above 60 per cent in the upper 50 cm depth during the vegetative growth stages translates to light and frequent irrigation applications. Irrigation water applied during the vegetative growth stages should meet crop water requirements and build up soil water to near field capacity in the 50 to 100-cm zone for later crop use during the peak water use period when flowering is occurring.

In general, barley is most sensitive to inadequate soil water during the flowering growth stage. Inadequate soil water during this stage results in flower abortion.

Barley roots reach maximum extension at the flowering growth stage. To ensure that soil water is adequate throughout the root zone during flowering, the monitoring depth of the root zone should be increased from 50 cm to 100 cm at the early heading growth stage, and soil water should not be depleted to less than 60 per cent of available (i.e. allowable depletion should not be greater than 40 per cent of available).

Irrigations should be scheduled to fill the entire root zone (100 cm) to field capacity at the late boot growth stage to avoid applying irrigations during the flowering growth stage when the crop is most vulnerable to Fusarium Head Blight (FHB).

Increasing the irrigation management root zone from50 cm to 100 cm at the late boot growth stage requires less frequent and larger irrigation volumes and results in increased water availability to the mature barley roots. This increased time between irrigations keeps the canopy dry, discouraging the growth of FHB.

Fusarium Head Blight

The strategy of scheduling irrigations to fill the entire root zone (100 cm) to field capacity at the beginning of the late boot growth stage, combined with the application of appropriate fungicides, may help reduce the severity of FHB infection. The risk of FHB increases when the canopy is moist due to rainfall or irrigation during flowering.

Applying irrigation to recharge the 100-cm root zone to field capacity at the late boot growth stage should be done whether or not the allowable depletion soil water content (irrigation trigger) has been reached. The next irrigation event should be applied after flowering is complete(about 10 days after the first flower appearance) and when soil water content is near 60 per cent of available in the 100 cm root zone (Table 1).

As an additional management tool for managing the risk of FHB, it is recommended that barley growers consider increasing seeding rates, which helps reduce tiller formation and shorten the flowering period for the entire crop, thus reducing the time that irrigation should be avoided.

Final Irrigation

The timing of the last irrigation to refill the root zone for barley depends largely on the soil texture. The final irrigation may be applied at the soft dough growth stage when barley is grown in most soils except for loamy sand soils, which are limited by the lower water-holding capacity. The last irrigation to refill the root zone may be needed between the soft dough and hard dough stages on loamy sand soils.

About 80 mm of water is required to carry barley from soft dough to physiologic maturity in southern Alberta.No irrigation water is needed once the heads have completely turned colour from green to brown since the crop is mature at this point and yields have been established.

Soil Texture

Irrigation amounts required to replenish the root zone once allowable depletion soil water level is reached will vary with soil texture and growth stage (Table 1).

Table 1. Soil texture-based estimation of total available water and water amounts per irrigation event for barley during the barley growing season

Soil texture
50-cm root zone
(Vegetative or pre-flower growth stages)
100-cm root zone
(Flowering, fruit formation, and maturation growth stages)
Total available water (mm)
Water required to replenish soil to field capacity at 40% allowable depletion (mm)
Total available water (mm)
Water required to replenish soil to field capacity at 40% allowable depletion (mm)
Loamy sand
57
23
114
46
Sandy loam
70
28
140
56
Loam
90
36
180
72
Sandy clay loam
76
30
152
61
Silt loam
100
40
200
80
Clay loam
100
40
200
80
Silty clay loam
110
44
220
88
Sandy clay
86
35
172
69
Silty clay
106
43
212
85
Clay
96
39
192
77

Conclusion

Using suitable irrigation strategies with barley can mean a healthy crop with high yield and quality potential. In addition to ensuring that the barley crop is well-fertilized and well-protected from pests, growers are encouraged to properly manage irrigation by regularly monitoring soil water to ensure that the availability of water does not become a limiting factor in producing a high-yielding barley crop.

Applying irrigation just before the available soil water is depleted to 60 per cent and replenishing available soil water near field capacity in the appropriate root zones will greatly assist in producing a high-quality and high-yielding barley crop.

Prepared by
Alberta Agriculture and Forestry

For more information, contact
Alberta Ag-Info Centre
Call toll-free 310-FARM (3276)

Source: Agdex 114/561-1. April 2011.
 
 
 
 
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This information published to the web on April 1, 2011.
Last Reviewed/Revised on September 20, 2017.